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External documents relating to small-scale solid fuel heating. For global data, try the World Energy Council website:


The Soliftec reprint of Prof. Charles Tomlinson's 1864 Treatise on Warming and Ventilation. Written when the mechanical theory of heat was a new science, but just as relevant today with its fascinating illustrations of forgotten and wonderful stoves and fireplaces.

Available from Lulu


Heat Release in Fires V. Babrauskas, S. J. Grayson (1992) Taylor & Francis
Handbook of Environmental Engineering Calculations C. C. Lee, Shun Dar Lin (2000) McGraw-Hill
Principles of Turbulent Fired Heat Georges Monnot (1986) (Institut français du pétrole)
The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing Sjaak van Loo, Jaap Koppejan (2008) Earthscan


The English Fireplace LH Shuffrey (1912) Batsford, London
A Rudimentary Treatise on Warming and Ventilation Charles Tomlinson (1864) Virtue &Co
On the Smokeless Fire-place, Chimney-valves &c Neil Arnott (1855) Longman, London


Sources, health effects and control strategies of indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5): A review

Contributions of wood smoke and vehicle emissions in Yakima (USA)
2017_wood smoke and vehicle emissions in Yakima.pdf

Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles
Once you include emissions other than exhausts, electric vehicles can be worst, and worse than stoves
NonExhaust PMs.pdf

Systematic and conceptual errors in standards and protocols for thermal performance of (small) biomass stoves

Dioxins from Biomass Combustion: An Overview

Heating with Biomass in the United Kingdom: Lessons from New Zealand
Suggests that typical emissions from UK woodstoves are 3x that in New Zealand

Investigation of real life operation of biomass room heating appliances - Results of a European survey
How do people really use woodstoves?

Burning for sustainable behaviour
Could stove design be improved to make them easier to use?

Contribution of wood burning to PM10 in London
Particulate matter (PM) emissions from domestic wood burning in London are higher than the PM reductions achieved through London’s Low Emission Zone, finds

Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world
"A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40?000 deaths per year... Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health."

The impact of fuel properties on emissions from the combustion of biomass and other solid fuels in a fixed bed domestic stove

Experimental Study of Thermal Performance Comparison Based on the Traditional and Multifunctional Biomass Stoves in China

Monosaccharide anhydrides, monocarboxylic acids and OC/EC in PM1 aerosols in urban areas in the Czech Republic
Monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan), monocarboxylic acids etc in PM1 aerosol samples

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe-revised estimates and an evaluation
A re-evaluation of the many papers and reports on smoke, with the general conclusion that, it is really rather difficult to tell. Suggests that smoke from domestic stoves is typically between 150 and 800g GJ, depending on how you measure it.

New Hearth Emission Standards - The Definitive Guide to the EPA’s New Source Performance Standards for New Wood Heaters 2015

Analysis of Gas-Phase Carbonyl Compounds in Emissions from Modern Wood Combustion Appliances: Influence of Wood Type and Combustion Appliance
Tested emissions from different stoves and found total carbonyl emission varied with wood type: birch, 113 18 mg kg-1; beech, 178 31 mg kg-1; spruce, 171 19 mg kg-1.

European Air Quality Standards

Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London
Shows that "Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 g m" "At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be the smallest of the major sources of primary OC and EC, with the largest source of EC found to be traffic emissions."

Canterbury (NZ) method 1 for testing of ultra-low emission wood burners
Canterbury Method January 2015.pdf

Relationship of Visible Smoke and Particulate and Particulate Emissions from Wood Burning Heaters
New Zealand report, concludes that typical emissions are approximately...
Open fires (wood and coal) 203 g/day
Non-compliant wood burners 103 g/day
NESAQ compliant wood burners 60 g/day
Pellet Burners 15 g/day

Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner load

Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes
Showed mean of about 28.8 g/m³ indoors (against about 7g in smoke-free homes, 14g in smoker's homes)

Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential pellet combustion
Estela Vicente, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass fuels - extensive quantification and characterization
A compendium of several detailed papers and reports, prepared by Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry Dept at Umeå University, Sweden

Phenotypic and Molecular Plasticity of Woodforming Tissues in Maritime Pine
Provides a reasonably comprehensive alaysis of pyrolisis products

Fine particle emissions in three different combustion conditions of a wood-chip fired appliance - Particulate physico-chemical properties and induced cell death 2013
Suggests that the large particle smoke from smouldering, inefficient, stoves is actually less dangerous than the tiny particles from 'clean burn' stoves - though the clean stoves produce far less.

Wood burning PM in the UK
Presentation by Gary Fuller of King’s College London on sources of smoke in London

Milestone: Identification of biomass burning tracers 2013
Report by, analyses pyrolysis products (such as levoglucosan) as tracers for biomass smoke

Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionments of black carbon aerosols in London during winter time
Suggests that 15 - 20% of all smoke in London is from wood burning.

Determination of Levoglucosan in Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter
Investigates whether levoglucosan could be a molecular marker for wood smoke.\publication\8467404_Determination_of_levoglucosan_in_atmospheric_fine_particulate_matter\file\79e41506ef7593fc5c.pdf

Real-life emissions from residential woodburning appliances in New Zealand
Paper from AJ Scott/Ministry of the Environment 2005. Shows that "test method is not indicative of real-life emissions because of the wide range of variables, behaviours and installations evident in the field. Thus, real life emissions could not be predicted from the AS/NZS 4012/3 test results."

Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets
Paper in 'Atmospheric Environment', May 2014, found that "The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858g/GJ, NOx 122/g, NMHC 542g/GJ, PM 254g/GJ,for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219g/GJ, NOx 66g/GJ, NMHC 5g/GJ, PM 85g/GJ. ... Advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types [but] the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance..."

The European Environment Agency air pollution data centre

Trees, Trash, and Toxics: How Biomass Energy Has Become the New Coal
Report arguing that emissions from biomass plant are generally worse than from coal plant.

Dirtier than coal?
Report by RSPB, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth arguing that government sponsorship of wood burning results in it being 'dirtier than coal'

The Lubbock Memorial Lecture, 2010: Sustainable Energy - without the hot air
Lecture by Professor David JC MacKay FRS

Household Environmental Monitoring tools and protocols
As developed by the Kirk Smith Group and the University of California-Berkeley, including the Water Boiling Test (WBT) Protocol for evaluating small cooking stoves

Dublin Smoky Fuel Ban Detailed Assessment
By Mr Micheal Young, Department of Environment, Heritage & Local Government
Has useful information on emissions generally
Dublin Smoke.doc

The Problems with Outdoor Wood Wood-Fired Boilers (OWBs)
by Tom Todd, Washington Dept. of Ecology

Indoor air pollution and respiratory symptoms among fishermen in the Niger delta of Nigeria
V Umoh, E Peters, G Erhabor, E Ekpe, A Ibok - African Journal of Respiratory , 2013
Has useful general data on smoke and illness from small stoves

Evaluation of the Efficiency Energy of Wood Stove from Irati Brazilian City
Comparison of different simple and more sophisticated cooker types - showing that cooking efficiency is only around 5%

A comparison of fuel use between a low cost, improved wood stove and traditional three-stone stove in rural Kenya
Caroline A. Ochienga, Cathryn Tonnea, Sotiris Vardoulakisa
Shows a possible reduction in fuel use from 6.7 to 5.4 kg/day between three-stone and clay rocket fireplaces

Design modifications and comparative study of different biomass cookstoves
Report by KS Rana, SK Tyagi, KS Babu - 2013
The cooking habits and wood stove cooking experience of typical rural villages of Fiji.

An evaluation of some issues regarding the use of Aethalometers to measure Woodsmoke concentrations (2013)
Paper by Harrisona, Beddowsa, Jonesa, Calvob, Alvesb, Piob
Argues that identifying woodsmoke in the atmosphere from the colour of smoke spots is more-or-less impossible

Health and Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel - Use: The Need for Improved Exposure Assessment (2013)
Report by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA - a worldwide perspective - ISO 2012 on cookstoves etc

Understanding Stoves
Book by Dr N Sai Bhaskar Reddy
A comprehensive guide to simple stoves

Evidence of biomass burning aerosols in the Barcelona urban environment during winter time
M. Viana and others

Combustion Analysis Basics
An Overview of Measurements, Methods and Calculations Used in Combustion Analysis

Survey on the present state of particle precipitation devices for residential biomass combustion with a nominal capacity up to 50 kW

Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves
By Christoph A. Roden and five others.
An invesigation into emissions from cookstoves in rural China - compares emissions of different pollutants.

Experimental evaluation of particle number emissions from wood combustion in a closed fireplace
By Stefano Cernuschi, Michele Giugliano
Compares smoke particle size, CO, CO2 emissions from stoves

Comparison of emissions from wood combustion
Jürgen Orasche and 8 others.
Demonstrates the huge variability of emissions from small sf appliances.

Emissions for small-scale combustion of biomass fuels
Bowman, Nordin

Comparison of Methods for Evaluation of Wood Smoke and Estimation of UK Ambient Concentrations
Report by Roy M. Harrison and others showing that pollution attributable to wood smoke (by levoglucosan to potassium) are well below concentrations typical of other northern European urban areas.

Bio Intelligence Report of 23 April 2012
The Bio Intelligence Service has completed an 8-volume survey of domestic solid fuel heating in Europe, with a wealth of technical and market data. It estimates total appliance sales at about 2.3 Million per year.
Archived volumes:
1 Scope and Definitions.pdf
2 Economic and Market.pdf
3 Consumers and Infrastructure.pdf
4 Products Technical.pdf
5 Base Cases and Costs.pdf
6 Best Available Technologies.pdf
7 Improvement Potential.pdf
8 Policy.pdf ('Documents' section)

Health and safety in biomass systems - Design and operation guide
Review of risks associated with biomass combustion systems from the Combustion Engineering Association

Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels
Investigation by AP Fernandes into comparative smoke emission from different types of SF heater

Development of a Low Smoke Mongolian Coal Stove Using a Heterogeneous Testing Protocol
C Pemberton-Pigott, University of Johannesburg.

Particulate and gaseous emissions from manually and automatically fired small scale combustion systems
Christoph Schmidl et al, 2011. Tested 2 automatically and 2 manually fired appliances. Found average PM10 emissions from manually fired appliances were around 130 mg/m³, equivalent to 90 mg/MJ. Wood pellets and chips combustion under full load operation with automatically fired appliances emit almost one order of magnitude less.

Measurement and Modelling of Fine Particulate Emissions (PM10 & PM2.5) from Wood-Burning Biomass Boilers
Report to the Scottish Government by AEA Ltd

Inventorying PM emissions - Advances of Atmospheric Aerosol Research in Austria
Tries to separate wood smoke from other biological sorces of PM10s such as fungal spores and concludes that wood smoke odour is likely for many communities with traditional wood stove use. W Winiwarter - 2011

Emissions from small scale combustion of indigenous wood types of Central Europe. Part 1. Odour, gaseous and PM10 emissions.
Rzaca, M., C. Schmidl, E. Padouvas, H. Giebl, H. Lohninger, R. Ellinger, H. Bauer, H. Puxbaum, 2011.

Investigations of primary and secondary particulate matter of different wood combustion appliances with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2011.
A very useful comparison of emissions from older and modern log stoves and a pellet stove.

Emissions from domestic solid fuel burning appliances (wood-heaters, open fireplaces)
Technical Report No. 5 by J. Gras, et at. For Environment Australia, March 2002

Emissions from Wood-Fired Combustion Equipment
Tony Wakelin, P.Eng. for Ministry of Environment, British Columbia

UK biomass energy since 1990: the mismatch between project types and policy objectives
Dan van der Horst, 2005

An Economic Analysis to Inform the Review of the Air Quality Strategy Objectives for Particles For UK Government, 2001
Includes an Assesment of total particle emissions from domestic solid fuel appliances

UK Low Carbon Transition Plan For UK Government 2009
This presents important ideas about improving wood fuel supply both from forests and by diverting waste. It has nothing to say about appliances or installations.

The UK Government review of energy supply and use over the next fifty years. Mainly concerned with large-scale energy production and consumption - electricity distribution, road transport etc - but also notes that the part to be played by "Biomass stoves and boilers provide space and/or water heating from a variety of fuels such as wood pellets, woodchips, logs and non-wood fuels."

The full report:
Possible economic consequences of climate change, suggests could shrink the global economy by a fifth unless drastic action is taken - including a move towards renewable energy sources. KEY POINTS: Taking action now would cost about 1% of global gross domestic product. Without action up to 200 million people could become refugees through drought or flood. Unless the world, including USA and China, tackles climate change it is heading for the worst global recession ever seen. 1% of global gross domestic product (GDP) must be spent on tackling climate change immediately. If no action is taken, floods could displace up to 100 million people, melting glaciers could cause water shortages for 1 in 6 of the world's population, 40% of species could become extinct, droughts may create tens or even hundreds of millions of refugees. Failure to act early could cost 5% to 20% of global GDP and render large parts of the planet uninhabitable with poor nations, especially in Africa, hit worst. Switching to cleaner energy sources, like wind and solar, can help avoid the worst of the damage. Support for energy R+D should at least double and support for deployment should increase five-fold. Green taxes and changing behaviour will help - but schemes must be international. If the UK shut down all of its power stations tomorrow, the reduction in global emissions would be wiped out in just over a year by increased emissions from China. Action now will still take 30 yrs to show benefit. (also Comments on Stern Review by Patrick J. Michaels, University of Virginia, presents an alternative, less pessimistic, view.)

UK Government 'The Energy Efficiency of Dwellings' Report UK Department of Communities and Local Government November 2006
Shows that millions of homes across the country could benefit from cost effective improvements which cut both carbon emissions and fuel bills. Widespread implementation of such improvements could save around 7M tonnes of carbon a year. KEY POINTS: implementing measures with the fastest pay back and replacing boilers over time could save 7MtC a year and make householders better off; cavity wall insulation has increased from 20pc of homes in 1996 to 36pc in 2003; the number of homes with over 150mm of loft insulation increased by 4 million between 2001 and 2004; a further 8.5m homes could benefit from cavity wall insulation saving 2.1MtC a year; cavity wall insulation typically costs £340 to fit and pays for itself within 2.6 years. (Over a 5 year period householders would get a 200 per cent return on their investment). In practice, these costs and the payback period can be reduced through grants and subsidies, with some householders, on qualifying benefits, being eligible for free installation; increasing loft insulation could help 6.1m homes and deliver carbon savings of 1.2m a year. Pay back time for loft insulation is 2.7 years and householders get a 180 per cent return over 5 years. Again grants and subsidies are available; reaching the 60 per cent target by 2050 will require high take up of microgeneration including emerging technologies such as heat pumps and micro CHP (combined heat and power); research suggests that costs of low and zero carbon technologies could be reduced significantly for each doubling of installed capacity; and social housing is on average more energy efficient than private housing.

EU Action Plan for Energy Efficiency European Commisson 2006
Outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to realising over 20% savings in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020. This is considered to be technically and economically feasible. KEY POINTS: The document outlines a series of Priority Actions, expected to be backed-up by legislation. 1: Appliance and equipment labelling and minimum energy performance standards. The Commission will begin, in 2007, the process of adopting minimum energy performance standards for priority product groups including boilers, water heaters by the end of 2008 2: Building performance requirements and very low energy buildings ("passive houses"), including zero-energy houses- houses not requiring heating. 3: Making power generation and distribution more efficient 4: Achieving fuel efficiency of cars 5: Facilitating appropriate financing of energy efficiency investments for small and medium enterprises and Energy Service Companies 6: Spurring energy efficiency in the new Member States 7: A coherent use of taxation 8: Raising energy efficiency awareness 9: Energy efficiency in built-up areas 10: Foster energy efficiency worldwide

Real-life Emissions Testing of Wood Burners in Tokoroa Colleen Kelly, Victoria University Suri Mues, Ministry for the Environment Wayne Webley, Applied Research Services 2007
Includes comparison of simple hand-held one-test instruments against comprehensive laboratory tests.

Emissions from Wood-Fired Combustion Equipment
Paul A. Beauchemin, Martin Tampier, Envirochem Services Inc. for Ministry of Environment, Brtitish Columbia 2008. An analysis of emissions from commercial wood-fired plant.

A Round robin test of a wood stove: The influence of standards, test procedures and calculation procedures on the emission level
By O. Skreiberg, E. Karlsvik, J. E. Hustad, O. K. Sonju 1997. Comparison of results from same stove tested at six different national laboratories.

Assesment of BenzoaPyrene Concentrations in the UK in 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020
K.J., Vincent, T., Bush and P., Coleman. Includes distribution maps for solid fuel use in the UK

The Outdoor Air Myth Exposed
Unsigned, Opinion piece regarding outside air supply to stoves.

Efficiency and gases emissions with incineration of composite and one-component biofuel briquettes in room heater
P. Jevic, P. Hutla, J. Malaták, Z. &Scaronedivá 2007. Compares Emissions from various biofuels including wood, straw and beet pulp briquettes.

A Woodfuel Strategy for England
UK Forestry Commission 2007

Wood for Energy$FILE/see-wood-for-energy-poster.pdf
UK Forestry Commission 2009. A useful schools / general interest poster

European Air Quality Standards
European Commission 2009. Includes table of permitted pollutants.

Emissions of Rural Wood-Burning Cooking Device
Grant Ballard-Tremeer 1997. Includes useful information on optical smoke measurement.

Masonry Heater Emissions Testing Method and Design
OMNI-Test Laboratories, Oct 24 - 25, 1991

Residential Wood Combustion Technology Review and
by James Houck and Paul Tiegs

Comparison of Test Standards from Various Countries
by Edvard Karlsvik, Sintef Applied Thermodynamics

Review of Wood Heater and Fireplace Emission Factors
by James Houck, John Crouch and Roy H. Huntley

Design and Operating Factors Which Affect Emissions from Residential Wood-Fired Heaters
Review and Update by Paul Tiegs of OMNI Environmental Services

Discussion Regarding Reporting Units for Emissions from Residential Cord-wood Burning Space-heating Appliances
Paul Tiegs, OMNI Environmental Services, January 10, 1994 (revised February 1995)

Clean Combustion of Wood
by A.M. Hasan, R. Khan. A report of The Woodburning Stove Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, July, 1991

Emissions from Outdoor Wood-Burning Residential Hot Water Furnaces
By Joseph C. Valenti and Russell K. Clayton, Acurex Environmental Corporation

Air Requirements and Related Parameters for Masonry Heating Systems
The Research Division Housing Technology Incentives Program Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

Makeup Air Guidelines
Charles Zaloum, Natural Resources Canada Norbert Senf, Masonry Stove Builders

Investigation of Negative Pressure Test Protocols for Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances
Gulland Associates prepared for The Research Division, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, (2003)

Fireplace Air Requirements
ORTECH International, Scanada Consultants, Sheltair Scientific prepared for The Research Division, Canada Mortgage and
Housing Corporation, Ottawa, (1989)

Modifications and Refinement of the Computer Model Wood Burning Simulator
Scanada Consultants, prepared for The Research Division, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, (1987)

The Dynamics of Domestic Open Fires
by Prof. P.O. Rosin, 1939, A significant founding document, one of the first modern scienti
ic surveys of open fires. Highly recommended

The Flow of Gases in Furnaces (1923)
by W.E. Groume-Grjimailo. Russian classic on applying gas buoyancy laws to furnace design, as currently embodied in double bell heater construction. Complete text, 399 pages translated by The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

A Comparison of Fireplace Emissions Testing Methods
3 test methods were run simultaneously on open masonry fireplaces

Recent Laboratory and Field Testing of Masonry Heater and Masonry Fireplace Emissions
Norbert Senf, presented at 1994 Air and Waste Management Association meeting

Very Low Emissions Cordwood Combustion in High Burn Rate Appliances - Early Results with Possible Implications
Norbert Senf, presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association, San Antonio, 1995.

Low Emissions Residential Cordwood Combustion in High Mass Appliances - Recent Research and Results
Norbert Senf. Presented at Combustion Canada Conference, Ottawa, June 5 - 7, 1996

Comparison of dilution tunnel and electrostatic precipitator methods
Methods for the measurement of smoke mass emission rate from manufactured solid fuels for domestic open fires - British Coal Corporation, Coal Research Establishment January 1992

Real-life Emissions Testing of Pellet Burners in Tokoroa
C. Kelly, S.Mues and W. Webley, Ministry for the Environment, New Zealand 2007. Field testing conducted with the Condar sampler, including calibration against a laboratory dilution tunnel method.

Design, Construction and Performance of Stick-Wood Fired Furnace
by Professor Richard Hill, University of Maine, 1979

Design Principles for Wood-Burning Cook Stoves
Excellent guide to the construction and testing of small pot stoves. Shell Foundation Partnership for Clean Indoor Air, Aprovecho Research Center

Flue Gas Emissions in Wood Burning Stoves
Translation of 1985 Austrian study of PAH emissions from a Grundofen (masonry heater) and a conventional stove. Includes PAH analyses. Done by the government test lab for the Austrian stovemasons guild.

Determination of Condensible Particulate Woodstove Emission Factors Using Condar's Emissions Sampler
by Stockton Barnett (1983)

Testing Protocol for Particulate Emissions from Woodburning Fireplaces
Survey of Northern Sonoma Country APCD, Healdsburg, California, Dec. 10, 1997

Emissions of Rural Wood-Burning Cooking Devices
Phd thesis by Grant Ballard-Tremeer

Ignition of Wood: A Review of the State of the Art
by V Babrauskas. A surver of research into wood ignition temperature. 2001

Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution
M Sehlstedt. Comparison of the pulmonary effects ofdiesel exhaust, biomass smoke, etc (German)

Health Relevance Of Particles From Wood Combustion In Comparison To Diesel Soot
N. Klippel and T. Nussbaumer Zurich (Switzerland),

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