Index...


PROPERTIES OF SOLID FUELS

This page gives technical information about the properties of solid fuels, for more general information and advice, look at the Solid Fuels page.

The composition and calorific values are based on information averaged from official EN Standards, and therefore represents to some extent the 'official' figures, though may not be completely representative of fuels commercially available. Wood Fuel in particular is highly variable.

Typical properties of solid fuels, as supplied Anthracite Hard Coke Soft Coke Hard Briquettes Bituminous Coal Lignite Briquettes Peat Briquettes Dry Wood Logs Wood Pellets 300ºC Charcoal Dry Baled Wheat Straw
Moisture % 4.5 8.5 8.5 12 7.5 18.5 11.5 18.5 5 2 15
Ash % 8.5 9.5 7 8 5 7.5 5 <1 0.15 3 4
Volatiles % 8.5 1.5 9 11 32.5 56.5 68 84 80 30 72
Hydrogen % 3.5 0.5 2 3 4.5 3.5 5.15 5.5 6 1 5
Carbon % 85 85 80 80 60 52.5 48.5 40 48 67 42
Sulfur % 1 1 1 1 1 2 0.2 0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.2
Siegert number 0.683 0.290 0.290 0.683 0.672 1 0.7 0.650 0.650 ... ...
Heat content kJ/kg 31155 27050 28000 29500 26750 19500 18050 18500 18600 26700 16000
* Air required for combustion m³/kg 9.4 8.4 7 7 6.9 5.7 5.7 4.4 4.4 8.4 ...
Bulk kg/m³ 879 450 410 830 800 720 750 370 650 180 100
Potential Heat kW/kg 8.65 7.51 7.78 8.19 7.43 5.42 5.01 5.14 5.17 7.42 4.44
Bulk Potential kW/m³ 7603 3380 3190 6798 5944 3902 3758 1902 3358 1335 444
Auto-ignition temperature ºC ... 400 ... ... 300 ... ... 270 ... ... ...

*Air required for combustion assumes perfect (stoichiometric) mix of fuel and air, in practice this is rare, 2x air is not uncommon. Flue gas emitted (at perfect combustion) is almost exactly the same as the air required for combustion as, although part of the air is absorbed into the ash, this is almost exactly compensated for by the emission of volatiles.

PROPERTIES OF SOME BIOFUELS
After: Smith, K.R.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Thrän, D. 2001
  Moisture % (dried) Ash % Volatiles % Heat Content kJ/kg Bulk kg/m³
Beechwood (with bark) 20 to 55 0.5 84 18400 460
Sprucewood (with bark) 20 to 55 0.6 82.9 18800 310
Willow wood (Short rotation) 20 to 55 2 80.3 18400  
Bark (softwood)   3.8 77.2 19200 205
Sawdust         170
Shavings         90
Wood Pellets         650
Barley straw 15 4.8 77.3 17500  
Coconut husks 5 to 10 6   16700  
Coffee husks 13 8 to 10   16700  
Maize (corn) straw 15 6.7 76.8 17700  
Maize (corn) cobs 15 15 to 20   13400  
Maize (corn) grain          
Cotton husks 5 to 10 3   16700  
Groundnut shells 3 to 10 4 to 14   16700  
Hay, various   5.7 75.4 17400 110
Hemp straw 15 4.8 81.4 17000 110
Miscanthus (Elephant Grass)   3.9 77.6 17600  
Oil palm husks 55 5   8000  
Olives (pressed) 15 to 18 3   16700  
Poplar wood (Short rotation) 20 to 55 1.8 81.2 18500  
Rape grain   4.6 85.2 26500  
Rape straw 15 6.2 75.8 17100 110
Rice straw 15 4.4   12000 100
Rice husk   19   14000  
Rye grain   2 80.9 17100  
Rye straw   4.8 76.4 17400 110
Rye whole crop   4.2 79.1 17700  
Sugar cane stalk (bagasse) 40 to 50 4 80 8000  
Sunflower straw 15 12.2 72.7 15800 130
Triticale grain   2.1 81 16900  
Triticale straw 15 5.9 75.2 17100  
Triticale whole crop   4.4 78.2 17000  
Wheat grain   2.7 80 17000  
Wheat straw 15 5.7 77 17200 90
Wheat whole crop   4.1 77.6 17100 ..







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